Frequency Modulation Fundamentals

Originally a Solution for Eliminating Static.

In the 1920s, many brilliant scientists applied themselves to the study of frequency modulation (FM). One of these scientists was a communications systems theorist who worked for AT&T named John Renshaw Carson. Carson performed a comprehensive analysis of FM in his 1922 paper which yielded the Carson bandwidth rule.1 Carson was so convinced that FM was not a suitable solution to the static found in AM transmission systems that he once remarked, “Static, like the poor, will always be with us.”2

Beginning in 1923, in Columbia University’s Marcellus Hartley Research Laboratory, in the basement of Philosophy Hall, a driven genius in electronic circuitry named Edwin Howard Armstrong set out to reduce static through the use of FM. After approximately 8 years of toil, Armstrong had a brainstorm and decided to challenge the assumption that the FM transmission bandwidth had to be narrow to keep noise low.

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– SMT Bi-Directional Coupler, 25 dB, 0.2 dB Insertion Loss, 150W, 50Ω

o BDCH-25-272+, 700 MHz to 2.7 GHz


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